Sep 102006
 

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This article is focusing installing and configure MRTG with CPU,Memory and Disk Usage Graphs examples for Debian Ubuntu and Kubuntu Users and may be work for some debian based distributions.

MRTG is Multi Router Traffic Grapher (MRTG) is a tool to monitor the traffic load on network links. MRTG generates HTML pages containing PNG images which provide a LIVE visual representation of this traffic.

MRTG Requirements

Apache webserver with perl support
NET-SNMP
GD
Libpng
zlib

If you want to download MRTG you can download from here

Preparing you System for MRTG Instalaltion

First you need to install the required compilers

#apt-get install gcc make g++

Apache 2 Installation with perl support

Follow these instructions to install apache2 with perl support

MRTG Installation

Now we need to install mrtg and snmp

Installing MRTG in Debian, Ubuntu and Kubuntu

#apt-get install mrtg snmpd

The installation will create an mrtg subdirectory where the Apache Web pages reside. On your Debian,ubnutu,kubuntu systems the path of this subdirectory is:

/var/www/mrtg

Now you need to edit the mrtg configuration file to edit the some of the settings

File is located at /etc/mrtg.cfg you need to change the global settings as follows

# Global Settings

RunAsDaemon: yes
EnableIPv6: no
WorkDir: /var/www/mrtg
Options[_]: bits,growright
WriteExpires: Yes

Title[^]: Traffic Analysis for

You will find a crontab running every 5 minutes as user root

# cat /etc/cron.d/mrtg
0-55/5 * * * * root if [ -x /usr/bin/mrtg ] && [ -r /etc/mrtg.cfg ]; then env LANG=C /usr/bin/mrtg /etc/mrtg.cfg >> /var/log/mrtg/mrtg.log 2>&1; fi

Now we need to assign the snmp community name in snmp configration file /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf

# sec.name source community
# com2sec paranoid default public
com2sec readonly default public
#com2sec readwrite default private

Now you need to restart the snmp service

#/etc/init.d/snmpd restart

The configuration file creating using

#cfgmaker public@localhost > /etc/mrtg.cfg

Creating a configuration file for a device using cfgmaker

#cfgmaker [email protected] >> /etc/mrtg.cfg

With the configuration file created correctly there's only one other thing you have to do and that's to use the indexmaker utility to create the summary home page. Since you have to re-run this command every time you make certain changes to the /etc/mrtg.cfg configuration file.

Creating index file for the webserver using indexmaker

#indexmaker /etc/mrtg.cfg > /var/www/mrtg/index.html

Now you need to reboot your system wait for five minutes or so and then take a look at your summary home page. If your Debian,ubuntu,kubuntu system's IP address is 192.168.0.1 then you'd type in the following in the address bar of a browser running on a system on the same network:

http://192.168.0.1/mrtg/

Your summary home page should come up with a graph for each target entry in the configuration file. If a graph looks like there's no data on it, click on it and check the statistics to see if any traffic is being seen. Small amounts of traffic won't show up on the graphs because we used the Unscaled statement

Some of examples how to monitor cpu , memory , Disk usage

CPU Usage

/etc/mrtg/cpu.cfg

WorkDir: /var/www/mrtg
LoadMIBs: /usr/share/snmp/mibs/UCD-SNMP-MIB.txt
Target[localhost.cpu]:ssCpuRawUser.0&ssCpuRawUser.0:[email protected]+ ssCpuRawSystem.0&ssCpuRawSystem.0:[email protected]+
ssCpuRawNice.0&ssCpuRawNice.0:[email protected]
RouterUptime[localhost.cpu]: [email protected]
MaxBytes[localhost.cpu]: 100
Title[localhost.cpu]: CPU Load
PageTop[localhost.cpu]: Active CPU Load %
Unscaled[localhost.cpu]: ymwd
ShortLegend[localhost.cpu]: %
YLegend[localhost.cpu]: CPU Utilization
Legend1[localhost.cpu]: Active CPU in % (Load)
Legend2[localhost.cpu]:
Legend3[localhost.cpu]:
Legend4[localhost.cpu]:
LegendI[localhost.cpu]: Active
LegendO[localhost.cpu]:
Options[localhost.cpu]: growright,nopercent

Memory Usage

/etc/mrtg/mem.cfg

LoadMIBs: /usr/share/snmp/mibs/HOST-RESOURCES-MIB.txt
Target[localhost.mem]: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.4.6.0&.1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.4.6.0:public@localhost
PageTop[localhost.mem]:Free Memory
WorkDir: /var/www/mrtg
Options[localhost.mem]: nopercent,growright,gauge,noinfo
Title[localhost.mem]: Free Memory
MaxBytes[localhost.mem]: 1000000
kMG[localhost.mem]: k,M,G,T,P,X
YLegend[localhost.mem]: bytes
ShortLegend[localhost.mem]: bytes
LegendI[localhost.mem]: Free Memory:
LegendO[localhost.mem]:
Legend1[localhost.mem]: Free memory, not including swap, in bytes

Memory Monitoring (Total Versus Available Memory)

/etc/mrtg/memfree.cfg

LoadMIBs: /usr/share/snmp/mibs/HOST-RESOURCES-MIB.txt
Target[server.memory]: memAvailReal.0&memTotalReal.0:public@localhost
Title[server.memory]: Free Memory
PageTop[server.memory]: < H1 >Free Memory< /H1 >
MaxBytes[server.memory]: 100000000000
ShortLegend[server.memory]: B
YLegend[server.memory]: Bytes
LegendI[server.memory]: Free
LegendO[server.memory]: Total
Legend1[server.memory]: Free memory, not including swap, in bytes
Legend2[server.memory]: Total memory
Options[server.memory]: gauge,growright,nopercent
kMG[server.memory]: k,M,G,T,P,X

Memory Monitoring (Percentage usage)

/etc/mrtg/mempercent.cfg

LoadMIBs: /usr/share/snmp/mibs/HOST-RESOURCES-MIB.txt
Title[server.mempercent]: Percentage Free Memory
PageTop[server.mempercent]: < H1 >Percentage Free Memory< /H1 >
Target[server.mempercent]: ( memAvailReal.0&memAvailReal.0:publicy@localhost ) * 100 / ( memTotalReal.0&memTotalReal.0:public@localhost )
options[server.mempercent]: growright,gauge,transparent,nopercent
Unscaled[server.mempercent]: ymwd
MaxBytes[server.mempercent]: 100
YLegend[server.mempercent]: Memory %
ShortLegend[server.mempercent]: Percent
LegendI[server.mempercent]: Free
LegendO[server.mempercent]: Free
Legend1[server.mempercent]: Percentage Free Memory
Legend2[server.mempercent]: Percentage Free Memory

Disk Usage

/etc/mrtg/disk.cfg

LoadMIBs: /usr/share/snmp/mibs/HOST-RESOURCES-MIB.txt
Target[server.disk]: dskPercent.1&dskPercent.2:public@localhost
Title[server.disk]: Disk Partition Usage
PageTop[server.disk]: < H1 >Disk Partition Usage /home and /var< /H1 >
MaxBytes[server.disk]: 100
ShortLegend[server.disk]: %
YLegend[server.disk]: Utilization
LegendI[server.disk]: /home
LegendO[server.disk]: /var
Options[server.disk]: gauge,growright,nopercent
Unscaled[server.disk]: ymwd

Creating jobs for CPU , Memory and Disk Usage

CPU

/etc/cron.mrtg/cpu

#!/bin/sh
/usr/bin/mrtg /etc/mrtg/cpu.cfg

Memory

/etc/cron.mrtg/mem

#!/bin/sh
/usr/bin/mrtg /etc/mrtg/mem.cfg

Memory Free

/etc/cron.mrtg/memfree

#!/bin/sh
/usr/bin/mrtg /etc/mrtg/memfree.cfg

Memory Percentage

/etc/cron.mrtg/mempercent

#!/bin/sh
/usr/bin/mrtg /etc/mrtg/mempercent.cfg

Disk

/etc/cron.mrtg/disk

#!/bin/sh
/usr/bin/mrtg /etc/mrtg/disk.cfg

Run each script 3 times (disregard the warnings)

/etc/cron.mrtg/cpu
/etc/cron.mrtg/mem
/etc/cron.mrtg/memfree
/etc/cron.mrtg/mempercent
/etc/cron.mrtg/disk

Make the Index Files

#/usr/bin/indexmaker --output=/var/www/mrtg/index.html \
--title="Memory and CPU Usage " \
--sort=name \
--enumerate \
/etc/mrtg/cpu.cfg \
/etc/mrtg/mem.cfg \
/etc/cron.mrtg/memfree \
/etc/cron.mrtg/mempercent \
/etc/cron.mrtg/disk

Make the mrtg.cfg file

#cfgmaker --global "WorkDir: /var/www/mrtg/" \
--global "Options[_]: growright,bits" \
--ifref=ip \
public@localhost > /etc/mrtg/mrtg.conf

Cronjob setup

/bin/cat >> /var/spool/cron/crontabs/root
*/5 * * * * /bin/run-parts /etc/cron.mrtg 1> /dev/null

Now you logon to your web browser http://192.168.0.1/mrtg/ and Now you should see CPU,Memory and Disk Usage graphs.

If you want more documentation about MRTG check here

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 Posted by at 12:08 pm

  33 Responses to “MRTG Installation and Configuration in Debian based Distributions”

  1. Ok, I followed your howto, got it to work but your examples for cpu, mem, etc, really miss some PATHS and proper tags, I recommended you try to follow it ;)

    Just some hints on thins that hit me:
    - Ubuntu (at least) adds the mrtg cron job by default, no need to add one (except the “run-parts /etc/cron.mrtg”, that is needed)
    - Missing or wrong WorkDir in all examples (the /var/www/htdocs/mrtg one)
    - Indexmaker step, I added the previous mrtg.cfg in the list so that it prints the traffic graph
    - tags, mrtg does not take them when the are formatted like this , you have to squeeze it like this:
    - lots of warning/error messages when launching the cpu, mem, memfree, etc configs, anyways… seems to work

    Thanks for this article, with just minor fuss I am up and running. alt

  2. thanks for your nice point and i have corrected some it helps more people.

  3. I got this error:

    root@host:/home/beko# cfgmaker public@localhost > /etc/mrtg.cfg
    SNMP Error:
    no response received
    SNMPv1_Session (remote host: “localhost” [127.0.0.1].161)
    community: “public”
    request ID: 2006478049
    PDU bufsize: 8000 bytes
    timeout: 2s
    retries: 5
    backoff: 1)
    at /usr/share/perl5/SNMP_util.pm line 627
    SNMPWALK Problem for 1.3.6.1.2.1.1 on public@localhost::::::v4only
    at /usr/bin/cfgmaker line 919
    WARNING: Skipping public@localhost: as no info could be retrieved

    any idea?

  4. this error related to SNMP response from your client check snmp is configured properly or not

  5. I’m not understand this line

    Creating jobs for CPU , Memory and Disk Usage

  6. you need to create each one of the files menctioned with the details provided

  7. Yes , sure but how can I do :

    CPU

    /etc/cron.mrtg/cpu

  8. vi /etc/cron.mrtg/cpu right???

  9. Some notes:

    The snmpd restart command has a typo.

    You should warn people about wrapping for the cpu.cfg file. This got me as I copy/pasted (copy/pasting from the website is very strange, it also nukes dashes and quotes).

    The memfree.cfg, mempercent.cfg and disk.cfg sample files are missing the WorkDir directive so that they don’t work.

    Also cpu.cfg and mem.cfg don’t have any tag in the PageTop property so that indexmaker choked on them. indexmaker also choked on every single other .cfg file because it does not like ” and wants ” instead (no space). Same for the closing tags.

    The last indexmaker command looks wrong as it mixed .cfg files and cron scripts:
    > /usr/bin/indexmaker \u2013output=/var/www/mrtg/index.html \
    [...]
    > /etc/mrtg/cpu.cfg \
    > /etc/mrtg/mem.cfg \
    > /etc/cron.mrtg/memfree \

    Also, why not start with /etc/mrtg.cfg which we created in one of the first steps and now contains all the network interfaces?

    Finally, why does the last cfgmaker command write to /etc/mrtg/mrtg.conf rather than /etc/mrtg.cfg? This mrtg.conf is not referenced anywhere else so I don’t see what’s the point. And if it should have been /etc/mrtg.cfg, then why have us run another cfgmaker command before?

    Also, why run this cfgmaker command after indexmaker? Shouldn’t it be the other way around?

  10. LoadMIBs: /usr/share/snmp/mibs/UCD-SNMP-MIB.txt /usr/share/snmp/mibs/HOST-RESOURCES-MIB.txt /usr/share/snmp/mibs/HOST-RESOURCES-MIB.txt /usr/share/snmp/mibs/HOST-RESOURCES-MIB.txt

    all on one line.

  11. I don’t get it.

    [ Error writing /etc/cron.mrtg/cpu: No such file or directory ]

  12. hi Thanks for the tutorial.

    Am experiencing a problem when I run:

    /usr/bin/indexmaker -output=/var/www/mrtg/index.html -title=”Memory and CPU Usage” /etc/mrtg/cpu.cfg

    I get the following error:

    ERROR: CFG Error Unknown Option “sscpurawnice.0&sscpurawnice.0″ on line 5 or above.
    Check doc/reference.txt for Help

    Any ideas?

  13. In response to jamie:

    Make sure that you don’t have an extra line break. That should all be on one line in the cfg file.

  14. I was good up until the, “examples how to monitor cpu, memory, disk usuage”.
    These examples, should I create the /etc/mrtg/cpu.cfg /mem.cfg /memfree.cfg /mempercent.cfg
    /disk.cfg files? Or are these already created? Should I just copy and past what is listed
    above for these .cfg files? Is there anything I need to change to be specific for my devices?

    Also the “Creating Jobs for CPU, Memory and disk usuage”, do I create these files , the one for
    cron.mrtg/cpu /mem /memfree /mempercent /disk. I am using Ubuntu, which is very similar
    to Debian. I can not seem to locate any of these files in the locations were you said they were
    located. Not to mention when I did try creating them, it said permission denied.

    Please help. I have MRTG up and working, and would like to tie up the rest soon.

  15. the permission denied error when running indexmaker comes from omitting one of the backslashes at the end of each line. if you’ve written this to a script as i have, bash is trying to run the next line (after the missing backslash) as a command. as your cmd files are not chmod +x, they won’t run. to resolve, add the necessary backslashes.

  16. I got an error:

    Use of uninitialized value in hash element at /usr/bin/indexmaker line 352.

    Please help !

  17. this is a wonderful site. BLESSIMO

  18. Hello, everything goes well until i try this:

    Make the Index Files

    #/usr/bin/indexmaker –output=/var/www/mrtg/index.html \
    –title=”Memory and CPU Usage ” \
    –sort=name \
    –enumerate \
    /etc/mrtg/cpu.cfg \
    /etc/mrtg/mem.cfg \
    /etc/cron.mrtg/memfree \
    /etc/cron.mrtg/mempercent \
    /etc/cron.mrtg/disk

    i get:

    ERROR: unable to open config file: –output=/var/www/mrtg/index.html

  19. found the problem: #/usr/bin/indexmaker –output=/var/www/mrtg/index.html \ should be: /usr/bin/indexmaker –output=/var/www/mrtg/index.html

  20. lol, this page crams the two dashes together.. –output should have two dashes

  21. For the problem

    “Use of uninitialized value in hash element at /usr/bin/indexmaker line 352″

    Before do indexmarket you need connect the linux server to the network, and you need make a ping from linux server to other workstation for traffic generation. Try againg cfgmaker , indexmaker and mrtg commands.

    Patoflash

  22. Hi all !

    When I finished the installation using this guide, after I rebooted my box, I wait for a few minutes and then start the MRTG page… but all I can see is the MRTG-logo which is a link redirecting me to the MRTG website… so I don’t get any graph on my MRTG homepage.

    I had no errors during installation.

    I also wanted to check the config files for monitoring purposes, but it seems no MRTG map was created in etc/… did I do something wrong ? did I not do something ? did I miss something ?

    Thanks for any help anyone can provide :)

    Ch33rz,
    Troma

  23. Hi there,

    Tried installing MRTG on Debian Etch with the standard installation instruction. As per the instruction, I think the RunAsDaemon=yes should be set to RunAsDaemon=no. The reason is that if you set RunAsDaemon to yes and put a cron job to run every 5 mins, it will complaint with this message
    ==> mrtg/mrtg.log <==
    ERROR: I Quit! Another copy of mrtg seems to be running. Check /etc/mrtg.pid

    Not sure why nobody notice this.

    Regards.

  24. should we create the /etc/mrtg/cpu.cfg /mem.cfg /memfree.cfg /mempercent.cfg
    /disk.cfg files or they are somewhere already present ? cannot go ahead to monitoring disk, memory and cpu but only traffic analysis ? I am stuck here can anyone help from here ? I guess the tutorial lags proper explanation regarding these, Can anyone help in this matter, I googled for some time but cannot come up with a solution to cpu, disk, memory anylysis.

    Thanks in advance.

  25. Get the following error message:

    ERROR: I Quit! Another copy of mrtg seems to be running. Check /etc/mrtg.pid

    Please Help!

  26. ERROR: I Quit! Another copy of mrtg seems to be running. Check /etc/mrtg.pid

    it meens, that the scrip is allready running.. as daemon? or see crontab -l

  27. i’ve done everything as it is, but got error, when i tried to add cpu an mem graph.

    ERROR: CFG Error Unknown Option “sscpurawnice.0&sscpurawnice.0″ on line 5 or above.
    Check /usr/share/doc/mrtg/mrtg-reference.txt.gz for Help

  28. It worked with translated textual MIBs to OIDs, PageTop missing H1 error was corrected by specifying PageTop[localhost.cpu]: Active CPU Load % correctly for cpu, mem, memfree and mempercent configuration files, and lastly indexmaker worked by using only *.cfg files (below at the bottom).

    Cpu.cfg file
    WorkDir: /var/www/mrtg
    LoadMIBs: /usr/share/snmp/mibs/UCD-SNMP-MIB.txt
    Target[localhost.cpu]:.1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.11.50.0&.1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.11.50.0:[email protected]+ .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.11.52.0&.1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.11.52.0:[email protected]+.1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.11.51.0&.1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.11.51.0:[email protected]
    RouterUptime[localhost.cpu]: [email protected]
    MaxBytes[localhost.cpu]: 100
    Title[localhost.cpu]: CPU Load
    PageTop[localhost.cpu]: Active CPU Load %
    Unscaled[localhost.cpu]: ymwd
    ShortLegend[localhost.cpu]: %
    YLegend[localhost.cpu]: CPU Utilization
    Legend1[localhost.cpu]: Active CPU in % (Load)
    Legend2[localhost.cpu]:
    Legend3[localhost.cpu]:
    Legend4[localhost.cpu]:
    LegendI[localhost.cpu]: Active
    LegendO[localhost.cpu]:
    Options[localhost.cpu]: growright,nopercent

    Mem.cfg

    LoadMIBs: /usr/share/snmp/mibs/HOST-RESOURCES-MIB.txt
    Target[localhost.mem]: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.4.6.0&.1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.4.6.0:StayAway@localhost
    PageTop[localhost.mem]:Free Memory
    WorkDir: /var/www/mrtg
    Options[localhost.mem]: nopercent,growright,gauge,noinfo
    Title[localhost.mem]: Free Memory
    MaxBytes[localhost.mem]: 1000000
    kMG[localhost.mem]: k,M,G,T,P,X
    YLegend[localhost.mem]: bytes
    ShortLegend[localhost.mem]: bytes
    LegendI[localhost.mem]: Free Memory:
    LegendO[localhost.mem]:
    Legend1[localhost.mem]: Free memory, not including swap, in bytes

    Memfree.cfg

    WorkDir: /var/www/mrtg
    LoadMIBs: /usr/share/snmp/mibs/HOST-RESOURCES-MIB.txt
    Target[server.memory]: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.4.6.0&.1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.4.5.0:StayAway@localhost
    Title[server.memory]: Free Memory
    PageTop[server.memory]: Free Memory
    MaxBytes[server.memory]: 100000000000
    ShortLegend[server.memory]: B
    YLegend[server.memory]: Bytes
    LegendI[server.memory]: Free
    LegendO[server.memory]: Total
    Legend1[server.memory]: Free memory, not including swap, in bytes
    Legend2[server.memory]: Total memory
    Options[server.memory]: gauge,growright,nopercent
    kMG[server.memory]: k,M,G,T,P,X

    Mempercent.cfg

    WorkDir: /var/www/mrtg
    LoadMIBs: /usr/share/snmp/mibs/HOST-RESOURCES-MIB.txt
    Title[server.mempercent]: Percentage Free Memory
    PageTop[server.mempercent]: Percentage Free Memory
    Target[server.mempercent]: (.1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.4.6.0&.1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.4.6.0:StayAway@localhost ) * 100 / (.1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.4.5.0&.1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.4.5.0:StayAway@localhost )
    options[server.mempercent]: growright,gauge,transparent,nopercent
    Unscaled[server.mempercent]: ymwd
    MaxBytes[server.mempercent]: 100
    YLegend[server.mempercent]: Memory %
    ShortLegend[server.mempercent]: Percent
    LegendI[server.mempercent]: Free
    LegendO[server.mempercent]: Free
    Legend1[server.mempercent]: Percentage Free Memory
    Legend2[server.mempercent]: Percentage Free Memory

    Make the Index Files
    Indexmaker
    /usr/bin/indexmaker –output=/var/www/mrtg/index.html \
    –title=”Memory, CPU and Bandwidth Usage” \
    –sort=name \
    –enumerate \
    /etc/mrtg/mrtg.cfg \
    /etc/mrtg/cpu.cfg \
    /etc/mrtg/mem.cfg \
    /etc/mrtg/memfree.cfg \
    /etc/mrtg/mempercent.cfg

  29. My apology PageTop missing H1 should set up as
    PageTop[localhost.cpu]: Active CPU Load % for cpu.cfg
    PageTop[localhost.mem]:Free Memory for mem.cfg
    PageTop[localhost.memory]: Free Memory for memfree.cfg
    PageTop[server.mempercent]: Percentage Free Memory for mempercent.cfg

  30. Thanks guy for the tips and hints you provided. My MRTG now works after about 2 weeks of sleepless nights trying to work out all the troubles and figuring out the errors from apt-get install to compilation. I am now getting graphs from my routers this morning after daemonizing the MRTG. It works perfectly fine. Now for my next project, i will MRTG the Cisco Catalyst.

    By the way, i completed all this on Debian….

  31. there is no gcc for ubuntu

  32. i need to run it each time to make mrtg grow
    env LANG=C /usr/bin/mrtg /etc/mrtg/mrtg.cfg

    that what is in my

    /etc/cron.d/mrtg

    */5 *l * * * root if [ ! -d /var/lock/mrtg ]; then mkdir /var/lock/mrtg; fi; if [ -x /usr/bin/mrtg ] && [ -r /etc/mrtg.cfg ]; then env LANG=C /usr/bin/mrtg /etc/mrtg.cfg 2>&1 | tee -a /var/log/mrtg/mrtg.log ; fi

  33. #

    I am trying to install mrtg….i am in the last step in completing the process but when i entered the command..
    indexmaker –output=/var/www/mrtg/index.html /etc/mrtg/mrtg.cfg
    it gives the following error.
    Use of uninitialized value $first in hash element at /usr/bin/indexmaker line 353.

    I searched it on google but i don’t get the proper answer..plz help me out..

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